Labels and certifications


On the cosmetics shelves there are many products which declare themselves organic without however being so. A certification is necessary and even obligatory to be able to classify a product known as organic.

The labels and the logos that guarantee an organic cosmetics product are indicated directly on the product as well as on its packing, if there is one.  They are relatively easy to recognize and attest a manufacture according to rules defined in their recognized private respective specifications.

The use of the term “organic” and of other derived terms on the label of a cosmetic or personal care product is not governed in Canada [1]   except in Quebec. When the publicity or the labelling of one of these products offered for sale in Quebec makes use of the term “organic” or a derived term to qualify the manufacturing process of this product or of the ingredients which it contains, that falls under the jurisdiction of the CARTV, under the terms of the The Act Respecting Reserved Designations and Added-Value Claims

There does not exist however in Quebec a specific organization which oversees the trade of organic cosmetics.

On the Quebec market one can find products carrying European and Canadian labels like ECOCERT Canada resulting from an association between Garantie Bio and ECOCERT France in 2000 (this organization remains in charge especially of organic agriculture, for cosmetics it is still necessary to  deal with the European organization), inhabitant of Quebec (Quebec Vrai) and sometimes American.

What is the difference between label and certifying organization?

The difference is especially used in Europe, the certifying organization is the one that carries out the control of the companies and ensures itself of the respect of the specifications which makes it possible to affix the name of the organization on the product which becomes Certified by… whereas the label refers to any other pledge of guarantee, for example a product can be certified ECOCERT but labelled Cosmébio. An eco-label, for example, represented by a logo, is not an official label, but a mention allotted by a certifying private organization, in order to establish that a product or an actor has a reduced impact on the environment.

The products carrying these labels respect obligatorily the contents of the specifications under which they were labelled. Several labels can be certified starting from the same specifications. The system also envisages monitoring organizations (in Quebec that would be CARTV) who ensure the respect of the law and who verify the work of the certifiers. When a cosmetic or personal care product has been certified, the labelling must mention the name of the certifier and refer to the specifications according to which the product was certified.

Each specification defines the “rules” according to which one manufactures the products like:

  • what substances can be used;
  • what are the chemical processes that are authorized for the transformation of the raw materials;
  • what are the manufacturing processes of the finished products that can be very complex and which make the difference between the certification of organic agriculture and organic cosmetics;
  • what is the minimum and maximum percentage of organic and/or natural ingredients.
  • All the specifications follow the five following principal rules:
  • principles of manufacturing respectful of man and environment;
  • prohibition to use substances like certain preservatives (triclosan, parabens, henoxyethanol), certain synthetic dyes (majority of the synthetic dyes starting with CI), chemical filters, aluminum salts, etc…;
  • use of a maximum of vegetable ingredients;
  • the use of a green chemistry, i.e. processes of chemical conversion that respect the natural resources, reduce energy consumption, do not harm the environment etc… ;
  • the use of the bare minimum of authorized synthetic ingredients;
  • prohibition to use raw materials resulting in the death of an animal or to test the products on living animals (certain certifications go as far as the verification of certain raw materials capable of affecting the life of the animal even if that does not kill it).

Differences in point of view exist concerning the minimum percentage of ingredients imposed resulting from organic agriculture, the surface-active ones [2]   authorized and the use of certain products of synthesis, but all the specifications offer serious guarantees.

Let us take a closer look at the differences between the best known certifications in Europe [3]   since in Quebec the certified products of care and beauty are mainly of European source. Thus, generally we will find certified products ECOCERT, BDIH, Cosmebio and Cosmétique Bio Charte Cosmetics and Quebec Vrai. I give here information on some certifications that I did not see yet on the Quebec market (NaTrue, Nature & Progrès, Cosmos), because one is extremely likely to see them appear soon.

Warning : certification is granted to each product individually and not to the company or to a complete brand. Thus, if you have bought a Weleda cream, that does not mean that all the Weleda products are certified, quite to the contrary. One labels cosmetic products, not brands . The same company can sell labelled products Cosmébio BIO, labelled products Cosmébio ECO but also non-labelled products. The documents and the Websites that propose “brands of confidence to you” are thus not reliable, it is always necessary to check product by product.

The majority of organic certifications should, by preoccupation with transparency for the consumer, post the percentage of the organic ingredients of the total of the ingredients but in practice I have noticed that it is especially ECOCERT which does it. With Cosmos this rule should post in a systematic way. Each manufacturer can offer variable quantities of organic ingredients in so far as they are not below the minimum limit required.

The BDIH is the federal association of the German commercial and industrial companies for medical drugs,  dietetic products, food supplements and body care. This association of companies, created in 1951, includes a working group dedicated to natural cosmetics which defined in 2001 the criteria of the label “controlled natural cosmetics”. There are about fifty companies whose products carry this logo, the five best known over here are: Dr. Hauschka, Lavera, Logona, Aubrey Organic and Weleda. Contrary to France and Quebec, the word “natural” thus presents a legal guarantee in Germany. A brand should have more than 60% of its products meeting the objectives of BDIH for them to be certified by this organization.


  • the products must contain at least 50% of genuine vegetable oils and a maximum of 50% of esterified oils (transformed starting from a natural oil);
  • one does not allow the use of floral water (vapour obtained during distillations of essential oils which becomes water) to obtain an organic certification;
  • there is a list of products (oils, oily extracts, waxes, plant extracts) which must be obligatorily organic;
  • it does not authorize Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate present in practically all shampoos;
  • this label is one of most demanding concerning the environmental criteria to be respected by the manufacturer.


  • it is not an independent organization but an association formed by manufacturers of cosmetics whose cosmetics products are nevertheless controlled by an institute of independent control, the IMO;
  • there is no minimum obligatory percentage of organic ingredients in the composition of a product;
  • certain preservatives of synthesis  (4) are authorized such as benzoic acid  3 ,  its salts and its ethyl-esters, salicylic acid  7 and its salts, ascorbic acid  1  and its salts as well as alcohol benzyl  6  (the processes of extraction of these preservatives are however very well defined and regulated).
  • there are no specifications as for the nanoparticles

The directive “controlled natural cosmetic” of BDIH is used in this Guide of non-toxic hygiene, beauty and cosmetics products , to avoid semantic confusion, as well as an organic certification.



The label Cosmebio

The French trade association Cosmebio, which comprises mainly manufacturers of cosmetics, set up a label for natural cosmetics in 2002. Control is carried out by independent and approved certifying organizations like ECOCERT.

Qualité France is another independent certifying organization which delivers the Bio and Eco labels of Cosmebio whose charter is not identical to that of ECOCERT. There are actually two Cosmebio labels: the ECO (ecological) label and the BIO (ecological and organic) label.

This association comprises more than 350 members and has more than 4000 certified products.

The ecological and organic Cosmebio label guarantees that one finds:

  • at least 95% of natural ingredients;
  • at least 10% of organic ingredients in the finished product;
  • 95% of organic ingredients on the total of the vegetable ingredients (under the ECOCERT norm but not the one of Qualité France which does not make any mention for this type of calculation)
  • a maximum of 5% of ingredients of synthesis.

 ECO Cosmebio Label

The ecological Cosmebio label guarantees that one finds:


  • at least 95% of natural ingredients;
  • at least 5% of organic ingredients in the finished product;
  • 50% of organic ingredients on the total of the vegetable ingredients;
  • a maximum of 5% of ingredients of synthesis.

To obtain the Cosmebio label it is necessary to obtain the certification of ECOCERT or Qualité France, therefore all these labels are based on the same specifications.

It is one of the least demanding labels because, on the one hand, there is a tolerance of 5% for ingredients of synthesis and, on the other hand, a product can be labelled “organic” cosmetic with only 10% of the ingredients resulting from organic agriculture… If one calculates that in a hydrating cream 70 to 90% of the content is water, it does not require much for a product to be certified organic. Cosmebio authorizes chemicals like surface-active Cocamidopropyl Betaine and Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate, and six preservatives of synthesis: Benzoic Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Salicylic Acid, Benzylic Alcohol, Propionic Acid, Formic Acid. The preservatives are the same ones for ECOCERT and Qualité France.


ECOCERT  is an independent organization of control and organic certification founded in France in 1991. It is based in Europe but one finds it in more than 80 countries (ECOCERT Portugal, ECOCERT Romania, ECOCERT Canada), which makes it one of the greatest organizations of organic certification in the whole world. This reference frame corresponds in fact to the technical specifications of the labels Cosmétique Bio described above. On the whole, ECOCERT entered 14.000 organic labelled beauty products in 2009 [4] .

Guarantee of certification ECOCERT:

  • minimum 95% of ingredients of natural origin;
  • 10% of the natural ingredients must contain ingredients resulting from organic agriculture;
  • maximum 5% of ingredients of synthesis.


  • It is an independent organization;
  • ECOCERT informs the consumers by affixing on the label the real percentage of organic ingredients contained in the total product;
  • the producers are controlled twice a year and receive a licence and a certificate for their product only if the manufacturing process entirely respects the ECOCERT charter;
  • this certification is one of the most rigorous on the manufacturing processes and raw materials;
  • ECOCERT is a very evolutionary certification, in 2007 it was the first to withdraw Phenoxy-ethanol as well as Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonim Chloride in 2008 and currently they revise their positions as far as nanoparticles are concerned.


  • their specifications require that at least 95% of the ingredients of the product are of natural origin, however, the word “natural” does not discriminate against natural raw materials and against chemically modified products;
  • do not give any limitation as for the use of esterified oils (transformed starting from a natural oil);
  • allows the use of 5% of components of synthesis in a finished product;
  • allows the use of floral water (the vapour obtained during distillations of essential oils which becomes water) as an organic ingredient, the organic certification can thus rest on the use of this dilution which is not a pledge of quality;
  • ECOCERT certifies products containing chemical ingredients such as surface-active Cocamidopropyl Betaine  5  and sodium laureth sulphate  4 ;
  • 6 preservatives of synthesis are allowed:  Sodium benzoate  2 , Benzylic Alcohol     6 , Formic Acid  2 , Propionic Acid  2   and its salts, Salicylic Acid  7   and its salts and Ascorbic Acid  1  and its salts.

It should always be reminded that, in spite of any certification, the manufacturers are held to respect the minimum required by the specifications, 10% in the case of organic ECOCERT but that they may well go beyond that, even up to 30 or 35% of organic ingredients in the formula of certain products.


Created in 2008, NaTrue is a group of manufacturers of natural and organic cosmetics products which has as a principle that only natural raw materials and transformed raw materials are authorized. This organization aims at an elevated level of requirements for standards of natural and organic cosmetics and the standardization of the regulation of the labels on a European scale. 75% of the products of a brand must be NaTrue certified so that it can be certified by this organization.

Control is carried out by an independent American organization, the QAI ( Quality Assurance International ).

Three certifications are possible which obey to the existing criteria of differentiation between organic and natural cosmetics: one star, two stars and three stars.

NaTrue*  indicates the natural cosmetics respecting strict criteria relating to ingredients coming from nature.


NaTrue**   indicates the natural and partially organic products which must fulfill the following requirements:


  • a minimum of 15% of vegetable or animal natural substances;
  • a maximum of 15% of transformed substances of natural origin;
  • 70% of ingredients coming from controlled organic cultures.

NaTrue ***  indicates the organic products and represents the most demanding level which cannot be granted to many products:


  • at least 20% of natural and vegetable substances;
  • a composition of a maximum of 15% of transformed substances of natural origin;
  • a minimum of 95% of ingredients resulting from controlled organic cultures.


  • one does not allow the use of floral water (the vapour obtained during distillations of essential oils which becomes water), therefore one cannot have recourse to this easy way for certification;
  • a much clearer certification (in the sense that one understands the relevance of differentiating the nature of the products and their manufacturing processes) for the consumer who establishes three groups of cosmetics according to the share that water occupies in the totality of the product and the formulas used in the manufacture of the cosmetics which can be very different;
  • for each group of product, a minimum percentage for the natural and organic products is fixed making it by this fact the most demanding label;
  • NaTrue has high requirements in the ethical and ecological field;
  • this certification imposes very strict standards on the producers so that the consumer can profit from a total transparency concerning the composition of the natural or organic cosmetics.


  • although more just and stressing the fact that the nature of the products can be very different the star system remains a certification which is more difficult to understand by the consumer who pays no close attention to and interest in the world of organic certifications;
  • NaTrue is a regrouping of manufacturers of natural and organic cosmetic products;
  • in the final analysis, this certification in spite of the clarifications that it brings is not more rigorous as for the percentages of necessary organic materials to obtain certification considering that it adapts the percentage according to the ratio water/total of the product and that it accepts the greatest number of preservatives of synthesis (7): Benzoic Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Salicylic Acid, Benzylic, Dehydroacetic Acid, Alcohol Propionic Acid, Formic Acid.

NaTrue and National Sanitation Foundation in the United States have announced the creation of a new standard for the American market which is also valid on the international level.


Nature & Progrès

Created in 1964 by doctors and agronomists, this association is at the origin of the first specifications of conditions of organic agriculture in the world. It is an international federation gathering consumers and professionals who offer a guarantee of a requirement level which is higher than the European organic regulation. The label is not only given to one product since at least 70% of the ranges of cosmetics must respect the criteria of the specifications of conditions. The specifications of conditions also includes particular requirements concerning the environmental management of the production.

The products certified by Nature & Progrès are verified by an independent organization of certification Certipaq.


  • one does not allow the use of floral water (vapour obtained during distillations of essential oils which becomes water);
  • there is no percentage imposed concerning organic ingredients although 100% of the vegetable ingredients must result from certified organic agriculture Nature & Progrès.


  • it is left to the discretion of the consumer to calculate the share of the organic ingredients in the totality of the product.
  • this certification also allows the use of preservatives of synthesis but in a very restricted number, three only: Benzoic Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Dehydro-acetic Acid.

Soil Association

This label was founded in 1946 by a group of farmers, scientists and nutritionists. This British certification is very strict and occurs on two levels (more than 95% or less than 95% of organic ingredients). Not too many products can carry the logo “U.K. Soil Association Organic” , because 95% of the components must result from organic agriculture. The products containing less than 95% of organic ingredients can post only the mention “Organic”.

This association guarantees to the consumers a real transparency as far as the composition of its products is concerned. The parabens and the phenoxyethanol are however allowed as are four preservatives of synthesis: Benzoic Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Benzylic Alcohol, Dehydroacetic Acid and Phenoxyethanol under special approval.


Launched on January 31, 2011, a new European certification resulting from a long negotiation between the principal actors of natural and organic cosmetics in Europe has come into being. Several organizations of certification have already been approved by Cosmos-standard: BDIH in Germany, ECOCERT Greenlife, ICEA and AIAB for Italy, Qualité France and Soil Association Ltd Certification in England. A procedure of homologation is in sight for the new certifying organizations operating according to the Cosmos-standard criteria. Although conceived to standardize European certifications like NaTrue, this label changes little for the consumer on this level and one can say that the very objective of its creation was not achieved because the national logos will remain in place and will be only supplemented by a mention “ Cosmos Organic ” or “ Cosmos Natural ” according to the type of certification. The advantage of this certification consists in the fact that it went to seek the most demanding stipulations of all the organizations of certification (which must change their standards if they wish to affix one of these two logos on their products) so that it certifies and offers to the consumer a superior product.

This label guarantees that:

  • 95% of the ingredients are coming from natural agriculture;
  • 20% of these ingredients must be organic;
  • 95% of the mechanically transformed natural ingredients must be organic;
  • 30% of these chemically transformed ingredients must be organic;
  • a maximum of 5% of ingredients of synthesis excluding polyethylene glycol, silicones, the petrochemical derivatives and the parabens.

Here are the preservatives allowed by Cosmos Organic : Benzoic Acid, Ascorbic Acid, Salicylic Acid, Benzylic Alcohol, Dehydroacetic Acid.


USDA ORGANIC  is an organic standard elaborated in October 2002 for foodstuffs cultivated without pesticides nor fertilizer and for products made up of natural ingredients. The label “USDA ORGANIC” can be affixed on the cosmetic products in conformity with the standards defined by the USDA.

Four certifications are possible which makes it similar to the design of NaTrue: the products according to their manufacturing formula contain quantities very different from organic ingredients, the same certification can thus not apply to all the certifiable products.

100% Organic – The product must contain (other than water and of salt) only ingredients from organic agriculture.

Organic – The product must contain at least 95% of organic ingredients (except water and salt). The remaining ingredients must be composed of non-agricultural substances approved by the National List or of  non-organic agricultural produce which is not available in commerce in organic form, being also on the National List. The products can post the seal USDAn organic and must post the name of the agent of certification and the address.

Made with organic ingredients (Manufactured with organic ingredients) The products contain at least 70% of organic ingredients and the label of the product can contain up to three of the organic ingredients or “group of foodstuffs” on the principal label of posting. For example, a lotion for the body made with at least 70% organic ingredients (except water and salt) and only organic herbs can be labelled either “lotion for the body containing organic lavender, organic rosemary, camomile organic”, or “lotion for the body containing organic plants”. The products can post the seal USDA  organic and must post the name of the agent of certification and the address.

Less then 70% organic ingredients (Less than 70% of organic ingredients) – The products can nowhere use the term “organic” on the principal label of posting. However, they may identify the specific ingredients which are USDA certified as being of organic production on the declaration of the ingredients on the label of the product. The products can post the USDA organic seal and they cannot post the name of the agent of certification and its address. (Water and salt are also excluded here.)

The disadvantage of this certification which affixes its logo in the four cases is that it belongs to the consumer to see the details of certification which make all the difference between the qualities of the certified products.

Control is carried out by the American Department of Agriculture.

This label does not guarantee any non-natural ingredient nor ones of ionizing radiation in the production and the treatment of the products.

Companies which have certain certified products USDA ORGANIC: Origins, Dr. Bronner, Terressentials, Aubrey Organics, One Group, OrganicEssence (all products), Nature’s Baby Organics.

Here’s a new article published by BioFach and put into circulation in May, 2011 which enlightens us a little. [5]

« Certification of natural personal care in the United States? Newly required standard. »

”As in Europe, orientation is still difficult for the consumers and the variety of the labels and certifications causes confusion. The official label of the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), initially developed for organic food, is frequently used in the segment of natural personal care, because no legally authorized standard exists for these products. Private organizations like the NPA (Natural Products Association) or NSF International (National Sanitation Foundation) have worked out standards and offer certification. The latter cooperates with NaTrue, the German association founded by the manufacturers of natural cosmetics. The two organizations announced the creation of a new standard for the American market, which is also valid on the international level. Having taken effect in June 2011, Whole Foods Market, the commercial chain of America which has the most success for the organic and natural products, intends to accept to distribute only the natural products of suppliers of personal care which have the certification of the USDA or the NSF”.

Quality Assurance International

Quality Assurance International ( QAI ), a pioneer of the organic industry, was founded in 1989 in San Diego, California. Main supplier of services of organic certification in the world and accredited by multiple organizations, the programs of QAI verify the organic integrity at each link in the supply chain. Thus QAI supports a sustainable and reasoned agriculture while educating and by sensitizing the consumers at the organic community.

Quality Assurance International (QAI) is the organization accredited at the American Department of Agriculture (USDA) and which is in charge of certifications of the products to which standard NFS/ANSI 305 is applicable.

The QAI is accredited by the CARTV as a certifying organization.

Standard NFS/ANSI 305 authorizes the claim “made with organic” for the products containing 70 percent or more organic ingredients and conform to all the other requirements. The products covered by the standard include the products rinsed or not, as well as the products of care for the mouth and personal hygiene. The standard specifies materials, the processes, the criteria of production, and all the conditions which must be met to authorize the claim.

NaTrue and QAI have arrived at an agreement to create an accelerated procedure of mutual recognition for the certification of the products respecting at the same time the criteria of the NaTrue reference frame and those of American standard US NSF/ANSI 305.



You will also find in Quebec the products of care and cosmetics labelled by Québec Vrai .

In spite of the repeated requests for information concerning the specifications the organization answered us that “Québec Vrai does organic certification on the basis of the standard currently in force in Quebec”. There is, however, no current standard in force in Quebec for cosmetics…

According to the answers which we obtained from this organization, two categories of certifications are offered:

  1. Organic certification (more than 17% of organic ingredients without water) with the possibility of mentioning certified organic product by Québec Vrai on the containers.

This certification implies one annual audit.

  1. Checking of ingredients with the possibility of mentioning organic ingredients verified by Québec Vrai.

This certification implies one audit at the time of adhesion and the following years it is a review     documentary.

We could not obtain any information concerning manufacturing procedures and in the specifications. We thus deduced from it that there is no real reference frame for this certification. It does not seem very rigorous a certification, because a cosmetic can contain a very small percentage of natural or organic ingredients and a great percentage of ingredients of synthesis and obtain the certificate “Québec Vrai”  nevertheless. The organization gives itself the right to judge the whole of the components before labelling but we do not know which are the criteria.

Québec Vrai  [6]   is made up of and directed by the members who adhere to it, that is to say producers, transformers, distributors and retailers. According to their own definition it is “the only organization having only Quebec interests and this has been so for 14 years!”

To complete this chapter, I propose other labels to you which I have never seen on sale over here but which may soon arrive here.

The Italian Association of Organic Agriculture which guarantees to the consumer a product of natural origin and not very harmful for health.



Private collective label Biogarantie guaranteeing a minimum of 95% of ingredients resulting from organic agriculture.



The English label Organic AgriQuality which respects the strictest standards in the world of the International Federation of the Movements of Organic Agriculture and whose products must be composed of a 100% of natural ingredients and 70% to 90% of ingredients resulting from organic agriculture.

Other labels which you could find on a cosmetic or beauty product.

Natural Products Association Certified guarantees you a product whose ingredients are 95% natural (water excluded) and  screens out ingredients such as the Dirty List but it is not an organic certification and does not guarantee much in terms of safety (harmlessness).



In cosmetics, the Vegan logo stipulates that the product does not contain any ingredient of animal origin, but there is no guarantee as for its harmlessness. Several display units in the shops of natural products promote this logo, but “VEGAN” is not an organic certification.

The Bunny rabbit means that the manufacturer did not manufacture, finance or accept any test on  animals during manufacture nor on the ingredients which make up the product. This logo does not make any references as to the harmlessness of the product.

The recycling label 

The Möbius ribbon is used to recognize the objects worked out starting from recycled materials or of materials which can be recycled. If no percentage is indicated in the center of the ribbon that means that the content can only be recycled. If there is a percentage that indicates that the product is made starting from recycled materials with the percentage indicated.

The same criterion applies now to recycled paper.

In general, organic cosmetic certifications prohibit genetically modified raw materials ( GMO ). Ecocert, Cosmebio, Soil Association and NaTrue specify that genetically modified raw materials are prohibited pursuant to EU Regulation on organic production.

The ecological or equitable labels like Equitable Bio, Heart of forest, Eco control, European Eco-label, Equitable-ESR ECOCERT, Fair trade-Max Havelaar certify products resulting from the fair, responsible, interdependent and ecological trade but they do not guarantee to you an organic or non-toxic product unless they are accompanied by another logo, like those that one saw here above certifying an organic product and not harmful for health.

For more ecological, fair and interdependent choices consult the site

Conclusions :

  • As often in the course of our history European divergences, be they Hundred-Year Wars or controversies over organic cosmetics, affect us directly.
  • Certain certifications are very severe and the labelled products are very safe but others, although some very, very restricted in numbers, still allow some controversial ingredients, of synthetic origin which are in discordance with the definition even of an organic product.
  • More transparency is necessary for certain labels.
  • The great number of certifications and labels is a serious problem for the consumer and the harmonization of certifications at the European and North American level as much for the cosmetics as for the products for food consumption imposes itself more and more.
  • The organic proportion in a product depends largely on its nature (it is possible to find a very small percentage in hair products, dyes, shampoos, toothpastes and deodorants, for example) and the quality of the product is given by the first six ingredients on the INCI list which should be real vegetable oils, fats or waxes authentically natural, certified organic.

[1] ↑  Changes are expected as of July 2011

[2] ↑  Ingredient which reduces the surface stress and supports a uniform distribution of the product during its use. Many surface-actives also play the part of emulsifiers or of foaming agents. One most frequently finds them in shower gel, shampoos or in shaving creams (definition of the ‘Observatory of  cosmetics’).

[3] ↑   This comparative study has as source the document “Organic cosmetics: what are they precisely? 50 questions and 50 answers by Rita Stiens. (in French) ‘’La cosmétique bio c’est quoi, au juste ? 50 questions et 50 réponses de Rita Stiens.

[4] ↑ Source :–la-revolution-bio-est-en-marche-.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%253A+TerrafeminaNews+%2528TerrafeminaNews%2529&utm_content=FaceBook

[5] ↑   Source :

[6] ↑   Definition found on:

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